Leopard Gecko Care Sheet: A Complete Guide for Beginners (2023)

You’ve probably heard that:

  • Leopard geckos are popular as pets
  • Leopard geckos are named after their spots
  • Leos need some special care and diet

But, did you know that:

  • Leopard geckos are among the most popular pet reptiles in the world, and with a good reason
  • Leos come in an amazing variety of colors and patterns thanks to morphs that have been developed in captivity.
  • Leos are easy to care for and require less space and equipment than many other lizard species

I have spent the last 14 years in the company of leopard geckos, and they have been the most satisfying pets I’ve ever had. The amazing color range, the docile temperament, the unique characters, the seemingly-smiling faces, the fact that they are undemanding, hardy, easy to care for and breed – these are the traits that make leopard gecko a great pet, and a joy for every reptile enthusiast.

That is the reason that leo is such a popular beginner lizard, but also a favorite of many seasoned leopard gecko breeders, some of which dedicated their entire careers to these charming, easy, and sometimes even squeaky mini-dinosaurs.

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Habitat: Desert

(Video) Complete Leopard Gecko Care Guide!

Diet: Insects

Cost: From $20 to $100

(Video) A Beginner's Guide To Setting Up A Leopard Gecko Tank


Some Facts About the Leopard Gecko

  1. Leopard gecko’s natural range spans through parts of the Middle East, central and southwestern Asia.
  2. Although in captivity they are usually kept in desert-type terrariums, leos are not desert dwellers, and sand is not a good substrate for them.
  3. The scientific name for Leopard gecko is Eublepharis macularius.
  4. Leos are often referred to as nocturnal, but they are actually crepuscular animals, which means they are most active in twilight.
  5. Leopard geckos lack the adhesive lamellae – microscopic hooks on their feet that most others geckos have; that means they cannot climb vertical surfaces.
  6. Since leopard geckos breed so readily in captivity, almost all available leos on the market were born in a terrarium.
  7. Leopard gecko’s natural color is yellowish-brown with dark spots all over the body. However, many morphs with amazing color ranges were created, and many of them don’t include any spots.

Lifespan: How Long Do Leopard Geckos Live?

For a small animal, leopard gecko is pretty long-lived. Their lifespan depends on the care and breeding, but it can span from 8 years for breeding females up to 20 years for males or females that haven’t been bred. The oldest known leo lived up to be 32 years old.

Size: How Big Can Leopard Geckos Get?

Leopard geckos length ranges from 7 to 8 inches (~18-20 cm) for females and 8 to 10 inches (~20-25 cm) for males. They are small to medium-sized, but sturdily built lizards.

However, there are bigger and heavier leo morphs called Giant and Super Giant, weighing up to 150 grams, or even more.

Leopard Gecko Care Sheet: A Complete Guide for Beginners (9)

Difficulty: How Is the Leopard Gecko Behavior?

In short, leopard geckos are easy-going lizards. They are not overly fast, and they are absolutely non-aggressive. Aside from the attractive looks, it’s their temperaments that make them such popular pets.

Although leos are not social in the true sense of the word, they do communicate with their surroundings and other members of their species. They have specific body language and utilize their tails to communicate, and sometimes they even vocalize. Learning these cues will tell you a lot about your leo’s mood and health. Here are several examples:

  • Tail wavingbasically has a role to inform others of the gecko’s presence; male will wiggle his tail to introduce himself to females, and more vigorous shakes have a defensive role.
  • Tank (glass) climbing can be a random exploration activity, but can also indicate that something’s off with your gecko’s environment.
  • Squeaking or chirping usually translate as “stay away”, or “let me go”; some geckos will also vocalize while in pain, so check them if they are making sounds without any contact.

As I mentioned, leo’s behavior provides an insight into their health status. Like other animals, leopard geckos can get hurt or sick, although with proper care this is very rare.

Some commonly seen leopard gecko health issues include:

  • Intestinal impaction;
  • Incomplete shedding;
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiency
  • Metabolic bone disease;
  • Parasite infections;
  • Egg retention – dystocia;
  • Wounds, burns and abscesses;

For a full checklist and detailed descriptions of common leo health problems, please refer to our main article on health and diseases.

> Read More:

The Type of Habitat

Although leopard geckos come from dry grasslands of Asia, in captivity they typically live in desert terrariums – with one big exception. Sand should never be used as a substrate, as it can cause bowel impaction when accidentally consumed with food. The predominantly dried habitat which features suitable rocks and smooth pebbles, or other type of suitable substrate, at the bottom of the tank is perfect for satisfying leo’s natural needs.

Leos should also have several hiding places (at least one per gecko, but more is preferable), and at least one of them should feature absorbable substrate which you will keep moist – peat moss, coconut coir or other types of “eco earth”. Note that these are not suitable as general substrate, but only for moist hiding boxes.

The minimum size of the tank should be 10 gallons (~ 40 liters) for a single leo, and 15 gallons (~ 60l) for a pair; as a general rule, you should add 5 gallons for every additional gecko.

The temperature in the tank should be between 75° to 85°F (~ 24-29 °C) during the day, with the basking area featuring temperature up to 90°F (~ 32 °C). The tank should be arranged in a way that allows a temperature gradient – when there is one heated area in the higher temperature range, while the opposite area should be cooler. You will provide additional heat to the tank by using heating pads, ceramic heaters or suitable lights.

Being crepuscular, leopard geckos have adapted to live in the relative darkness. That means that a UVA/UVB specialized reptile light is not necessary for your leo to thrive. In fact, if the room is well lit, leos will thrive without any artificial light. The only thing that is important is for them to have their day-night cycle.

> Read More: The Leopard Gecko Habitat

Diet: What Do Leopard Geckos Eat?

Leopard geckos are insectivorous lizards – they will eat only insects, and will accept live insects only in most of the cases. That may sound troubling, but fortunately, feeder insects are easily reared at home, can be ordered online, and are probably available at your local pet store.

Some examples of feeders from leopard gecko’s menu are mealworms, crickets, superworms, dubia roaches, and waxworms. As I said before, all of these insects can be bred in your home with relative ease.

Leos food will have to be regularly dusted with a specialized reptile multivitamin and mineral powder. They will also require some source of pure calcium in their tanks.

Leopard geckos drink water quite often, so you need to provide fresh water in shallow trays within their terrarium.

> Read More: The Leopard Gecko Diet

Availability: Where to Buy a Leopard Gecko and What Is the Cost?

Leopard geckos can be bought in a pet shop, directly from a breeder, or at reptile shows.

Although buying a gecko at a pet store seems easier, I would always recommend buying your pet from a reputable breeder. You can’t know what was the store-displayed gecko’s quality of life up until you saw him; how he has been fed, how stressed he was, and both of these factors can impact his health. I heard about cases of leoopard geckos bought in a pet shop that refuse to eat in their new home.

A reputable, quality breeder should be comfortable with showing you all his reptiles, facilities, and breeding terrariums. An ideal breeder will readily advise novice reptile enthusiasts and will be more than happy help you pick a healthy gecko.

If you are a child reading this, know that you should always bring your parent or a guardian to help you with your choice. In fact, it’s good to have a reliable company when buying a pet no matter what’s your age, as two objective pairs of eyes will see things clearly much better than just one.

(Video) Basic Guide to Caring For & Handling Leopard Geckos!!

The price largely depends on the morph. You can get a “normal”, wild-type leopard gecko or gecko with a common morph for around 20$. Expect to pay around 100$ for more exotic morphs. The rarest morphs, such as the Black Pearl, can cost up to a couple of thousand dollars.

Leopard Gecko Care Sheet: A Complete Guide for Beginners (10)

Leopard Gecko FAQ

Why Leopard Geckos Make Good Pets?

Leopard geckos make excellent pets – they are easy to care for, hardy, attractive and quite charming in their own way. They don’t require a lot of space or special equipment. Although they eat live insects only, the diet doesn’t have to be highly specialized and are not fussy eaters.

They also have quite long life spans (see below), which makes them suitable to have if you have children – by the time your pet’s time to go comes, they will be mature enough to handle the concept of death.

Do Leopard Geckos Bite?

Leopard geckos are not aggressive, and a large majority of adults will not bite even when they feel threatened. A young gecko that is not used to handling will be more prone to snapping than a tame adult.

If it happens that you get bitten by a leo, it will be by accident – when they mistake your fingers for food (especially if you hand-feed), or if two of your lizards have a fight and you try to separate them.

Leos have tiny teeth that are dangerous only for insects. However, their jaws are strong for their size, so the bite reminds of a hard pinch rather than a real bite. In most cases, it will only scratch the upper layer of your skin.

In case you get bitten by your pet gecko and the bite pierces your skin, be sure to disinfect the “wound” properly. Be especially careful about the thin skin just above your nails, as, in my experience, is the only spot that will bleed in the case your gecko gets it.

How to Tame a Leopard Gecko?

Captive-bred leopard geckos might be more docile than the wild-caught specimens, but they still have their natural defensive instincts. Each gecko needs some time to become tame – to get used to being regularly caught and handled by humans.

Taming a leopard gecko includes several phases:

  1. First, you will put your hand in the tank without catching the gecko.
  2. As he gets used to this, you will start to hold him gently for a short moment, and then let him go.
  3. When your leo lets you hold him for a prolonged period of time, you can carry him, but still without taking him out of the terrarium.
  4. The last step is taking your gecko out of the terrarium. Make sure you are holding your lizard above a soft and wide surface, such as a big bed.

To prevent escape and injury, probably the most important rule is not to put your leo out of his tank until you are sure that he is completely comfortable and relaxed in your hands. Just go easy – if your leo is squeaking and trying to wiggle out, let him go and stop the session.

Note that juveniles tend to be nervous and snappy, so go slowly with them. As they get more mature, it will be easier and safer to practice handling.

Do Leopard Geckos Yawn?

Yes, leopard geckos really do yawn, and that is one of their more amusing displays. They are known to do it after meals, but in my experience, they will also do it randomly during their active period of the day.

Do Leopard Geckos Smell?

Leopard geckos are odorless – if you keep their terrarium neat, of course. Since they eat only insects, there are no food residues that can get moldy, and their excrement is granular and dry.

The only thing that can be smelly and is related to geckos are the feeder insect colonies. Because of the smell and also the ammonia vapors, make sure to keep them out of your bedroom or living room.

Do Leopard Geckos Dig?

Leopard geckos will dig in two cases. A pregnant female will get an urge to dig as she is getting ready to deliver eggs; she may dig around the tank more than usual if she doesn’t have a proper nesting site. In other cases, leos will dig if as a part of their burrowing instinct. Digging can be intensified in the case their moist shelter got dry, or if they don’t have a sufficient number of hiding places.

Do Leopard Geckos Make Noise?

Leopard geckos can and will vocalize on different occasions – they can squeak or yelp quite loudly for a small lizard.

Do Leopard Geckos Change Color?

Leopard geckos cannot change their pigmentation as chameleons can. However, their color will change as they are getting ready to shed their skin. As the old skin is prepared to be removed, it will get pale, making your gecko look ghostly.

After they shed their skin, the new skin will have a normal color. In fact, it will even look fresher and brighter for a while.

Leopard Gecko Care Sheet: A Complete Guide for Beginners (11)

How Many Leopard Geckos CanLive Together?

Leopard geckos don’t live in packs. Even if cohabitation can work in specific cases, one of your leo behavior can change from a day to another. This can result in injuries or worse. It is never a very good idea to keep two leopard geckos together.

If you have several leos, they can still meet occasionally outside of their respective tanks, in neutral territories. Keep an eye open to see if everything goes well!

Do Leopard Geckos Get Lonely?

Leopard geckos are solitary animals. A large majority of reptiles are not very social creatures, so as far science can tell at this point, they can’t get lonely. If you do not have the space to keep two or more leos, you don’t have to worry if your single leo will get lonely – because he will not.

On the other hand, although they won’t get exactly emotional about it, leos will surely suffer if an owner ignores them, and fails to feed them, change water, or clean their tank regularly. Since they are really discrete and undemanding pets, they can get easily neglected. Be sure to check on your gecko and cater to his needs every day.

How Many Leopard Gecko Morphs Are There?

Believe it or not, there are more than one hundred leopard gecko morphs and color variations. The number is increasing with almost every breeding season. Some popular morphs include Tangerine – featuring orange hues, Blizzard – patternless albino with light pastel overtones, High Yellow – with generous amount of bright yellow color on its body and reduced spots.

> Further Reading: Our Ultimate Guide on Leopard Gecko Morphs

When Is a Leopard Gecko Full Grown?

All reptiles grow through their entire lifetimes. The same is with geckos, but the rate of growth drastically changes after they turn one year old. Up until then, they will grow rapidly, and you can say that they will reach their full size at one year old. The growth that goes on later is minuscule.

Leopard Gecko Care Sheet: A Complete Guide for Beginners (12)

I hope that after reading this overview you have the basic knowledge about leopard geckos and a clearer idea if the famous leo is a pet for you. Doing research and gathering information before buying a leopard gecko is crucial for having a happy and healthy pet.

For even more in-depth information on health, behavior, diet, and habitat, please feel free to explore our other articles.

Do you have anything to add or anything to ask? Let us know in the comments! Ultimately, keeping the conversation going and exchanging experience will benefit our beloved leopard geckos the most.

(Video) Raising Your Leopard Gecko the Right Way | TIPS & TRICKS FOR SUCCESS!


How do you take care of a leopard gecko for beginners? ›

Leopard geckos eat a diet of live insects, which can include crickets, 'calci worms', waxworms and small locusts (no bigger than the size of your gecko's head). You'll also need to provide fresh vegetables and clean water to keep these insects hydrated. You should feed young geckos every day and adults every other day.

Are leopard geckos easy for beginners? ›

If you've never had a pet reptile before, the leopard gecko is a good place to start. These little lizards are charming and easier to care for than many other species. “Leopard geckos are beautiful, with lovely colors and markings, huge bright eyes and sweet faces.

What is the best care for leopard geckos? ›

Leopard geckos do their best when the environmental cage temperature is in the mid-80s (Fahrenheit; ~30°C). Geckos can take nighttime temperatures as low as 70°F (21°C). Heat tapes, under-tank heaters, or low-level basking lights are great sources for heating the cage. In-tank hot rocks are not recommended.

What is the easiest gecko to take care of? ›

Crested geckos are the most popular arboreal gecko we sell and for good reason. They remain quite small and don't need too much additional heating so they can be included in gorgeous bio-active terrariums. They aren't normally aggressive and tend to be very easy to keep and handle with a little experience.

Do leopard geckos need sand or dirt? ›

Pre-washed, silica-free play sand or fine-grain dune sand like Jurassic Reptile Substrate and Zoo Med ReptiSand (linked above) is perfectly safe to use with leopard geckos, although we do recommend mixing it with organic topsoil for optimum results.

Do leopard geckos need cold or warm water? ›

Water Recommendations for Leopard Geckos

Offer fresh water daily in a water dish large enough for the lizard to soak its entire body in. Additional soaks in shallow warm water for 15-20 minutes 2-3 times a week are helpful, especially during a shed.

Do all leopard geckos like to be held? ›

Do Leopard Geckos Like to Be Handled? Leopard geckos are one of the lizards that can be handled without causing them stress. However, it doesn't mean that they need to be handled. Depending on the leo's little personality, they will either like it in moderation or simply tolerate it.

Is it better to have 1 or 2 leopard geckos? ›

Multiple Males

Most people know not to house male leopard geckos together because of how territorial they can be. Housing them together almost always results in them fighting or stressing each other to the point that one is injured, killed, or both are injured or killed. It is not a risk you want to take.

What do leopard geckos need in their cage? ›

Humidity & Water

In their natural habitat, geckos will burrow and seek moister and cooler environment when they need it, and having a humid spot is a way to replicate that. A humid spot is also necessary for the geckos to shed their skin properly.

What do geckos need in their tank? ›

Your Leopard Gecko's set up should include:
  • A vivarium.
  • Heat mat.
  • Basking lamp.
  • UV lamp.
  • Infra red heat lamp.
  • Hygrometer.
  • Thermometer.
  • Suitable substrate and hides.

What geckos like to be held? ›

Crested geckos have gentle dispositions that allow them to be handled, and they are hardy, making then a good choice for a first gecko. The crested gecko is an arboreal, nocturnal gecko with a wide body and large head.

Do leopard geckos need baths? ›

Leopard geckos generally do not need to be bathed and can keep themselves relatively clean if kept in a tidy habitat. However, your gecko may need to be washed if it is having a hard time shedding its skin, develops a skin condition, or becomes noticeably dirty.

What is the friendliest breed of gecko? ›

Leopard geckos are easy to care for, making making them one of the best pet lizards for beginners and children over the age of 8. With an average length of 9 inches, leopard geckos are easy to handle and have a gentle disposition.

Can geckos be lonely? ›

Since geckos are naturally solitary and territorial creatures, they do not get lonely if placed alone in a cage or left for some time away from their keeper. They much prefer having their food and heat to themselves rather than sharing it with another gecko.

What's the friendliest lizard for a pet? ›

Our number one pick for the best lizard pet to own is the bearded dragon, or beardies. These extremely popular, friendly, easy-to-care-for lizards are a great option for anyone.

What should I put at the bottom of my leopard gecko tank? ›

Paper. Like paper towels, paper sheets are simple but safe and make it easy to clean your leopard gecko's cage. You can get brown butcher paper or unprinted newsprint quite economically and just replace the substrate when it is soiled.

Do leopard geckos need fruit? ›

Can Leopard Geckos eat fruit and vegetables? Leopard Geckos are insectivores and cannot eat fruit or vegetables. A Leopard Gecko's body can only digest meat, such as insects. The reason they can't eat fruit or vegetables is because their bodies aren't designed to manage or digest fruit and vegetables.

Do leopard geckos like to be held? ›

Keep in mind that leopard geckos don't particularly like being held. If you get your leo used to being handled when it's young, it probably won't mind when you hold it, but it won't love it either!


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